How just two hours’ screen time a day as a toddler can make children more likely to ‘be badly behaved or have ADHD’
- Canadian researchers studied screen time among children in 2,400 families
- Two hours or more per day could lead to a seven times higher ADHD risk
- The researchers recommend a maximum of 30 minutes per day for toddlers
Toddlers who spend hours staring at screens every day are more badly behaved by the time they are five, a study has claimed.
Pre-school children who use smartphones, tablets and other gadgets for more than two hours a day are also seven times more likely to develop ADHD.
The screen time has a ‘significant impact’ on the child’s development, researchers said as they warned parents need to cut it down.
One author of the study suggested this is because time spent looking at screens is time taken away from healthier activities such as sport or sleep.
Just half an hour per day, or even less, would be the optimum amount for pre-school aged children, according to the researchers.
But experts in the field immediately dismissed the findings as having ‘critical shortcomings’ and doing nothing to prove the screen time had actually caused the bad behaviour.
The researchers who carried out the study say toddlers shouldn’t spend more than 30 minutes per day looking at phones, tablets, computers or TVs (stock image)
Scientists at the University of Alberta studied more than 2,400 families and found children glued to screens have more significant behavioural problems.
As well as a higher risk of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), those exceeding two hours per day were five times more likely to be inattentive.
‘We found screen time had a significant impact at five years of age,’ said Dr Piush Mandhane.
Three-year-olds in the study spent an hour-and-a-half, on average, looking at screens every day. This fell slightly to 1.4 hours for five-year-olds.
The researchers found screen time may even have a bigger effect on a child’s behaviour than how much sleep they get or how stressed their parents are.
And this may be because it takes away from other aspects of life which could reduce the risk of attention problems.
Dr Mandhane told MailOnline: ‘Our data suggests that more screen-time leads to less sleep-time.
‘Developing a regular sleep routine, consistent wake and bed times that limit screen-time prior to bed, in also an important part of growth, development, and behaviour.
‘In another analysis, we found that children who watched more than 2 hours of screen time per day were almost 65 per cent less likely to sleep 10 hours per day. So more screen time equals less sleep time.’
The study backs up past research also suggesting damage to sleep, and other studies pointing to poorer brain development, mental health issues and damaged eyes.
A lack of sleep in childhood could stunt the growth of the brain and therefore lead to problems later in life.
HOW COULD TOO MUCH TIME STARING AT SCREENS AFFECT CHILDREN?
Research has shown spending too much time looking at screens – smartphones, tablets, computers and televisions, for example – can be damaging to children’s intelligence, sleep, mental health and vision.
A 2018 study by the CHEO Research Institute in Ottawa found eight to 11-year-olds performed five per cent worse on brain power tests than their peers if they spent two hours per day looking at screens.
This, they suggested, may be because looking at screens isn’t as stimulating as reading, and could interfere with vital sleep.
Disturbed sleep was also the focus of a warning from the UK’s Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health earlier this year, when it recommended children don’t use screens before bed.
The RCPCH said high levels of screen time are linked to a less healthy diet, a sedentary lifestyle and poorer mental health.
Dr Max Davie, a health officer said: ‘Parents need to get control of their own screen time if they are going to get control of the family’s screen time. It’s much easier to be authoritative if you practise what you preach.’
Dr Langis Michaud, a professor of optometry at the University of Montreal, wrote in The Conversation in February: ‘A rapid increase in visual problems has been noted since the introduction of the smartphone in 2007.
‘While the device itself does not emit harmful radiation, it requires the user to read its screen at a distance of 20 cm rather than the normal distance of 45cm to 50cm.
‘It has been suggested that this close distance boosts the risk of developing myopia by eight times, especially if both parents are myopic.’
Scientists at the CHEO Research Institute in Ottawa found children aged between eight and 11 had five per cent worse brain function than their peers if they spent more than two hours per day looking at a screen.
This, they believe, could be because games and videos don’t stimulate the brain in the same way as, for example, reading a book.
It was also likely to mean they didn’t sleep as well as others.
In the research published today, the scientists found organised sport and sleeping well could actually protect brains from the bad effects of excess screen time.
They found the exercise itself was less important for improving the children’s behaviour than the taking part in arranged activities.
Dr Tamana added: ‘The more time children spent doing organised sports, the less likely they were to exhibit behavioural problems.
‘A lot of the things that you do through organised activities are really important for young kids early on.
‘I think in lieu of screen time, it would be beneficial for parents to increase opportunities for other structured activities instead.’
While the researchers suggested ‘less is more’, they didn’t recommend cutting it out completely.
Instead, they said, it is a good opportunity to make sure children use electronic devices sensibly.
‘Our data suggests that between zero and 30 minutes a day is the optimal amount of screen time,’ said Professor Mandhane.
‘The preschool period is an ideal time for education on healthy relationships with screens.’
Scientists in the UK have criticised the study and said it does not directly link screen time to bad behaviour or ADHD.
And they added the researchers overstepped the mark in issuing advice to parents and doctors based on a flawed paper.
Professor Andrew Przybylski, director of research at Oxford University’s Internet Institute, said: ‘There is no baseline data on children’s behaviour so it is possible that children who are predisposed to behavioural problems are also predisposed to higher levels of screen-time. The paper does not contextualise this properly.
He added: ‘The authors go well beyond their results in providing advice for physicians and educators. The correlations are very small and inconsistent.
‘It is mildly shocking the authors would promote limiting screen-time on the basis of these findings given the evidence in the paper suggests nearly every other factor analysed was a much stronger predictor.’
Dr Bob Patton, a lecturer in clinical psychology at the University of Surrey, said: ‘While [the study] suggests that children under the age of five who spend an average of two hours or more a day in front of screens are more likely to have an ADHD diagnosis, it does not provide any indication that screen time has caused the issues.
‘Whilst overuse of the “electronic babysitter” may or may not contribute towards the development of behavioural problems, parents should be mindful of the possibility, and ensure that young children participate in a variety of activities, both on and off screen.’
The research was published in the journal PLOS ONE.